- Crypto Tokens: A Breakthrough in Open Network Design
- Why I have changed my mind on tokens
- Why decentralization matters
- Bitcoin for the open minded skeptic
- 7 Things To Read About Bitcoin (For Institutional Investors)
- Understanding Blockchain Fundamentals: Byzantine Fault Tolerance
- Nakamoto Consensus vs BFT
- Tendermint: Byzantine Fault Tolerance
- VIDEO: Blockchain
- VIDEO: Stablecoins
- VIDEO: Tether
- VIDEO: Stablecoin Algorithms (Rebase, Empty Set Dollar, Basis Cash, Iron Finance)
- MakerDAO and Dai (Decentralized stablecoin insurance)
- Understanding the mechanics of AMMs
- VIDEO: Automated Market-Makers
- StableSwap AMMs
Additional Foundational Concepts
- VIDEO: What is “Proof of Work?”
- VIDEO: What is “Proof of Stake?”
- VIDEO: Staking
- VIDEO: Impermanent Loss
- VIDEO: Sharding
- VIDEO: Rollups
- VIDEO: Sidechains
- VIDEO: AirDrops
- VIDEO: Liquidity Pools
- VIDEO: Yield Farming
- VIDEO: Smart Contracts
- VIDEO: ICOs
Tools and Analytics
Price, official websites, stats, volume by venue, etc:
- Dex.guru – charting for Eth and BSC coins
- Poocoin – charting for BSC, Matic, and KCC coins
- Dextools – for BSC, Matic, and KCC coins
- Okitoki – side-by-side viewer of multiple order books
- display info about transactions, wallet balances, etc. There is a clone for ~every chain, such as Solscan for Solana.
- tools for understanding callstacks in Ethereum transactions
- EthTx Transaction Decoder
- Awesome crypto trackers – many trackers here
- Dune Analytics
- analytics platform for Ethereum, featuring various datasets built from processing blockchain data
- on-chain analytics platform, featuring various datasets built from processing blockchain data
- wallet analytics (coin movements, large holders, big transactions, etc) for Ethereum. Also some NFT tools.
- ETH Gas.watch
- stats on historical/current Eth gas prices
- The Block
- various timeseries graphs showing state of network utilization, volume, DeFi protocol utilization, marketshare by venue, etc.
- an airtable-based database of recent crypto raises
- Packy McCormick: The Bull Case for Ethereum
- Etherscan – Ethereum Blockchain Explorer
- ENS (Ethereum Name Service)
- VIDEO: Ethereum 2.0
- zkSync whitepaper
- Lightning Network
- VIDEO: What is Lightning Network?
- Uses AVAX token
- Uses proprietary Avalanche Consensus Model, which follows “Proof of Stake” pretty closely.
- 4,500 transactions/sec per subnet (compared to 7/sec with btc and 15/sec with etc)
- One primary network with 3 blockchains: x-chain, c-chain, p-chain
- Each subnet can have it’s own proof method and it’s own virtual machine. They can each use public or private blockchains. Each blockchain can have their own rules.
- Snowman protocol: linearized version used on the lightning network
- Max cap of 720 million coins, 20% were given to the team and founders
- VIDEO: What is Avalanche?
Binance Smart Chain (L1)
- Introduction of Binance Smart Chain (Binance documentation)
- Binance Smart Chain and CeDeFi Explained (Finematics, April 2021)
- A Beginner’s Guide (Finbold, Oct 2021)
- A Complete Guide to BSC (Boxmining, May 2021)
- TVL and other analytics for BSC
- Awesome Binance Chain
- curated list of resources on BSC
- BSC Ecosystem
Tendermind / Cosmos (L1)
- Cosmos whitepaper (2016) – Cosmos network whitepaper (describing Cosmos zones/IBC and validator behavior – a network built on Tendermint consensus algo). See “Consensus systems” for a good summary of Tendermint vs PBFT and other consensus algos.
- Tendermint whitepaper (“The latest gossip on BFT consensus”) (2018) – describing the Tendermint consensus algo
- Tendermint vs BFT – a quick summary
- Jepsen: Tendermint – real-world test of whether Tendermint actually satisfies its theoretical safety properties.
- Fast and cheap
- Uses “Proof of History” instead of work or stake
- VIDEO: What is Solana?
- Creator: Anatoly Yakovenko
- Solana Summer (Aug 2021) – an easy-to-read description of Solana’s innovations from Packy McCormack (Not Boring newsletter)
- 8 Core Innovations (2019)
- Solana Validator 101: transaction processing
- ok so wtf is the deal with solana anyway – helpful concise honest description of solana programming, good for formulating a mental map
- 9/14 outage discussion – discussion of the outage on Sep 14, 2021, by Leopold Schabel (Jump Crypto), with discussion of the consensus model. See also Solana official postmortem
- how to solana – an overview of important primitives in the Solana ecosystem from Sino Global
- Ethereum with cheaper gas fees
- Uses MATIC coin
- Uses “Proof of Stake”
- Layer-2 Scaling Solution
- 65,000 TPS (transactions per second)
- VIDEO: What is Polygon?
- Runs a EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) blockchain
- Polygon PoS Chain (Finematics, Apr 2021)
- Polygon: L2 or not L2? (June 2021) – a brief summary of the behavior of Polygon as a sidechain, plus some discussion of the Polygon SDK for building new blockchains.
- Ecosystem of many different things and has many uses, but the main use case is in payment processing and in their stablecoins.
- Uses “Proof of Stake”
- Focuses on mass payment processing system
- Terra is an algorithmic stablecoin.
- Native network coin is called Luna, and a stablecoin called UST
- Luna is used to maintain the stable value of Terra
- As more people buy UST, the price of Luna rises
- VIDEO: What is Terra?
- Terra Docs explain the relationship between Luna and the various stablecoins minted by burning Luna.
- Build a simple Terra dApp
- CosmWasm docs
- this thread from @TheMoonMidas summing up major Terra DeFi protocols
- Terra Project Listing from Smart Stake
- The Terra Triforce: Rise of the Lunatics (Aug 2021, The Tie) – explaining the seignorage model of UST/LUNA and the Terra ecosystem
- Anchor – lending protocol offering high yields; see this thread for an insightful explanation
- Mirror – mirror real-world assets (e.g. $mAAPL) on Terra and Ethereum / BSC via Shuttle. note: currently under investigation by the SEC
- Nebula – a protocol for “ETFs”, where the target asset mix is dynamically changing via smart contracts (there are incentives to make actual asset mix = target). Do Kwon asserts a fascinating hypothesis: young investors want to make bets, not passively invest.
- Created by Charles Hoskinson, co-creator of Ethereum
- Uses “Proof of Stake”
- Uses “epochs” as slot leaders to scale proof of stake, a process called ouroboros
- Easily bridge other cryptocurrencies with Cardano using KMZ side chain protocol
- ADA is the Cardano crypto coin, named after the first computer programmer Ada Lovelace
- Hoskinson wanted to make Ethereum a for-profit entity
- VIDEO: What is Cardano?
- Hides transactions through ring signatures
- Uses “Proof of Work”
- Based on open-source code called “Cryptonote”
- “King of privacy in the Crypto world”
- Unlike bitcoin, the history of transactions are hidden
- VIDEO: What is Monero?
- L2 for Beginners (Mar 2021)
- describing a mental model of an L2 as a chain which writes enough state back to Ethereum that no one (including the L2’s miners/validators) can send back a fraudulent state
- Almost everything you need to know about optimistic rollups (Jan 2021)
- builds up the design for optimistic rollups from first principles, addressing various perceived issues as they arise
- Optimistic rollups: Arbitrum vs Optimism (Jul 2021)
- Optimistic rollups vs ZK-rollups (Aug 2021)
- a recent assessment of the state of various rollup projects
Tools for dApps
- Earn through yield farming with liquidity pools
- VIDEO: What is yield farming?
- Curve is a DAO
- Video: What is a DAO?
- Curve is an AMM (Automated Market Maker)
- Video: What is an AMM?
- Pools stablecoins to avoid slippage
- Protects assets through impermanent loss
- Video: What is impermanent loss?
- VIDEO: What is Curve?
- Decentralized social
- Smart contracts matching lenders to borrowers using crypto
- Uses AAVE ethereum token
- Uses smart contracts
- You lend AAVE money which they offer as loans through smart contracts. AAVE pays you interest on what you lend.
- VIDEO: What is AAVE?
- Enterprise level supply chain solution on the blockchain
- Authenticates and tracks goods
- Used by BMW to track odometer fraud
- RFID data integrated into blockchain
- VIDEO: What is VeChain?
- Collection of smart contracts that allows users to create leveraged crypto positions
- VIDEO: What is Fulcrum?